Studies of lung anatomy and function are often limited by the difficulties associated with imaging the complex network of airways with conventional imaging techniques. Phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques can provide high contrast images of the lung, with sufficient spatial resolution to detect the smallest respiratory units with just a single exposure. We will develop novel image acquisition and processing methodologies to quantitatively measure lung structure and function. Specifically, we will measure regional airway dimensions and regional lung air volumes from single projection images. Initially we will use synchrotron then translate the technology to a lab-based system as potential tools for biomedical and clinical applications.