1988 …2020

Research output per year

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Personal profile


Sandy is Professor of Tectonics and Geodynamics in the School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Faculty of Science.  Before moving to Monash University he was Professor and Chair, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto.  Sandy was educated in Scotland (BSc Hons, University of Dundee) and Sweden (PhD, Uppsala University).



I currently consult for Nuclear Waste Management Organization (Canada) and serve on their Adaptive Phase Management - Geoscientific Review Group.

In the past I have consulted for:

  • Swedish Nuclear Fuels Ltd (SKB)
  • Voisey's Bay Nickel Co. (INCO)
  • Gartner Lee Ltd.
  • AECOM Ltd.
  • Azimuth Environmental Consulting Ltd.
  • Atomic Energy Canada Ltd.
  • Goldcorp Ltd.

Research interests

Sandy's research areas of interest are:

  • Experimental Tectonics (aka Analogue Modelling)
  • Rates and Dynamics of Magma Emplacement
  • Precambrian Tectonics
  • Intraplate Geodynamics
  • Magmatic Arc Tectonics
  • Pure and Applied Structural Geology

Supervision interests

I am actively seeking highly motivated students to work on challenging PhD projects in Experimental Tectonics (aka Analogue Modelling), structural controls on ore deposits and the mechanics of igneous intrusion. Projects can be laboratory or field focused or a mixture of both.

Monash teaching commitment

EAE 3511 Deformation of the Crust

EAE 2532 Field Geology

External positions

Professor, University of Toronto

Jul 1989Jul 2010

Research area keywords

  • Continental Tectonics
  • Experimental Tectonics
  • Fracture Analysis - Nuclear Waste Respositories
  • Magma Emplacement and Migration
  • Structural Controls on MIneralization
  • Structural Geology

Network Recent external collaboration on country level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots.


Evolution of Proterozoic multistage rift basins – key to mineral systems

Jessell, M., Gorczyk, W., Cruden, S., Rey, P. F., Lindsay, M., Betts, P., Salles, T., Aitken, A., Keep, M., Lang, S., Denyszyn, S., Gessner, K., Schmid, S., Occhipinti, S., Cameron, G., McCuaig, T., McCracken, S. & Subramanya, A.


Project: Research

Magma transport dynamics and ore deposits

Cruden, S., Fiorentini, M., Barnes, S., Bunger, A. & Jackson, C.

Australian Research Council (ARC)


Project: Research

Enabling 3D stochastic geological modelling

Ailleres, L., Jessell, M., de Kemp, E. A., Caumon, G., Wellmann, J. F., Armit, R., Droniou, J., Lindsay, M. D., Cui, T., Betts, P., Cruden, S., Kemp, C., Gessner, K., Spampinato, G. P. T., Harrison, M. & Kessler, H.


Project: Research

Research Output

Hydrochronology of a proposed deep geological repository for low-and intermediate-level nuclear waste in southern Ontario from U–Pb dating of secondary minerals: Response to silurian and cretaceous events

Davis, D. W., Sutcliffe, C. N., Thibodeau, A. M., Spalding, J., Schneider, D., Cruden, A., Adams, J., Parmenter, A., Jensen, M. & Zajacz, Z., Apr 2020, In : Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 57, 4, p. 464-476 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Ore shoots in folded and fractured rocks – Insights from 3D modelling of the Fosterville gold deposit (Victoria, Australia)

Vollgger, S. A., Wilson, C. J. L., Micklethwaite, S., Tomkins, A. G. & Cruden, A. R., Mar 2020, In : Ore Geology Reviews. 118, 14 p., 103272.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Scale matters: The influence of structural inheritance on fracture patterns

Samsu, A., Cruden, A. R., Micklethwaite, S., Grose, L. & Vollgger, S. A., 1 Jan 2020, In : Journal of Structural Geology. 130, 16 p., 103896.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Open Access
1 Citation (Scopus)

The role of inherited crustal and lithospheric architecture during the evolution of the Red Sea: Insights from three dimensional analogue experiments

Molnar, N., Cruden, A. & Betts, P., 15 Aug 2020, In : Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 544, 11 p., 116377.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Buckling of orogens: Insights from analogue modelling

Boutelier, D., Gagnon, L., Johnston, S. & Cruden, A., 2019, In : Journal of Structural Geology. 125, p. 213-217 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Press / Media

How to talk to humans in a million years

Sandy Cruden


1 item of Media coverage

Press/Media: Research