Research output per year

If you made any changes in Pure these will be visible here soon.

Personal profile

Research interests

Immigration and Citizenship

Comparative Law

The European Union

Gender and Law

International Human Rights Law

Trafficking in Human Beings and Modern Slavery

Monash teaching commitment

LAW1114 Criminal Law 1 SEM1/T2

LAW4161 Introduction to European Union law SEM2/T3

LAW5304 Overview of international human rights law SEM2/T3; SUM/T1



Dr Heli Askola's central research theme is the study of the various legal, social and political practices through which states and international organisations, particularly the European Union, seek to manage increasing and diversifying migration flows and migrant inclusion and what these efforts mean for migrant-receiving states, their citizens and immigrants.

Her most recent work has focused on how demographic change intersects with shifts in immigration and citizenship policy, but she has an ongoing interest in trafficking in human beings, irregular migration and exploitative migration, including various forms of modern slavery; transnational law, esp. European Union free movement law and EU citizenship; and the challenges involved in 'multiculturalism' and the accommodation of ethnic minorities. Dr Askola is the author of a number of publications, including two monographs, The Demographic Transformations of Citizenship (Cambridge University Press, 2016) and Legal Responses to Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the European Union (Hart, 2007).

Having left her native Finland in 2001, Dr Askola has since then worked for several years in Italy, the UK and is currently based in Australia. Her background as an international migrant informs not only her research but her approach to teaching. She believes in internationalising legal education and encouraging students to understand their own legal system through a comparative lens and through inter-disciplinary approaches. She currently teaches European Union law, criminal law and human rights law; she has also taught these subjects in a number of other jurisdictions, including Canada, Italy, Malaysia and Viet Nam.

Dr Askola holds a doctorate in international, comparative and European law from the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. She has done consulting work for the International Organization for Migration, the European Commission and the European Parliament on areas such as trafficking in human beings, EU citizenship, children's rights, the regulation of hate speech and crime victims’ rights. She is an Associate of the Castan Centre for Human Rights.

Research area keywords

  • Comparative law
  • Transnational law
  • European Union
  • Violence against women
  • Immigration and citizenship
  • Multiculturalism
  • Trafficking in human beings
  • Modern slavery
  • Feminism

Research Output

Copying Europe? Integration as a citizenship requirement in Australia

Askola, H., 2020, (Accepted/In press) In : International Migration Review. 27 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Migration and the state’s focus on human trafficking as a security issue

Askola, H., 2020, The SAGE Handbook of International Migration. Inglis, C., Li, W. & Khadria, B. (eds.). 1st ed. London UK: SAGE Publications Ltd, p. 624-638 15 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review

Regional responses to human trafficking in Southeast Asia and Australasia

Askola, H., 2019, The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking. Winterdyk, J. A. & Jones, J. (eds.). 1st ed. Cham Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 15 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review

Wind from the North, don’t go forth? Gender equality and the rise of populist nationalism in Finland

Askola, H., Feb 2019, In : European Journal of Women's Studies. 26, 1, p. 54-69 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Dropping the ball or holding the line? Challenges to abortion laws in the Nordic countries

Askola, H., 1 Jan 2018, In : Women's Studies International Forum. 66, p. 25-32 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


  • 3 Expert/ advisor
  • 3 Submissions to industry or govt committees, commissions and inquiries
  • 2 Industry projects

Study on the transposition of the Victims’ Rights Directive (Directive 2012/29/EU) (Finland)

Heli Askola (Advisor)

Activity: External Academic EngagementExpert/ advisor

Inquiry into Establishing a Modern Slavery Act in Australia

Heli Askola (Contributor), Jean Allain (Contributor), Marie Segrave (Contributor), Andrew Crane (Contributor), Kevin Bales (Contributor)
28 Apr 2017

Activity: External Academic EngagementSubmissions to industry or govt committees, commissions and inquiries