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Personal profile


Caroline brings to the Monash University Accident Research Centre experience in community and tertiary education. Anthropology links these combined experiences. Caroline began her tertiary career as a mature-age student and her doctoral studies explored how primary school sexuality education could reach culturally diverse communities. Following her doctoral studies, Caroline diversified her experience to explore how paramedics could address the diverse needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Subsequently, she coordinated a unit in which students undertook community-based projects.

Caroline accepted additional coordination responsibilities to supervise the Alfred-based Monash Disaster Health Forum, and the Berwick-based Monash Emergency Management Forum. To underpin her new work, she successfully completed the Graduate Certificate in Emergency Health and Disaster Preparedness at Monash. During this time Caroline contributed to the Inclusive Practices Workplace Equity Committee at Monash University and the Alfred Health Cultural Diversity Committee, until their demise in 2010. In 2011 she was invited to join the Community Advisory Committee at Alfred Health, an appointment she held until 2014. Most recently, Caroline was elected to the WADEM Oceania Chapter Council, gained Level 2 membership to the Monash Institute of Graduate Research, supervises Masters and PhD Research Candidates, and continues her role as the Monash University Disaster Resilience Initiative Academic coordinator.


  • 72 hour self-reliance programs
  • Community-based Resilience
  • Cultural Diversity
  • Culture and society
  • Disaster Preparedness
  • cultural competency
  • paramedic education
  • survey

Network Recent external collaboration on country level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots.

Projects 2011 2017

Research Output 2005 2018

Understanding the role gender plays in survivor responses to disasters: evaluating the lessons in Disaster Program

Spencer, C., Bailey, N., Muir, C., Majeed, S., McArdle, D., Keech, E., Duncan, A. & Parkinson, D., 1 Apr 2018, In : The Australian Journal of Emergency Management. 33, 2, p. 53-59 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Open Access

Defining disaster resilience: comparisons from key stakeholders involved in emergency management in Victoria, Australia

Goode, N., Salmon, P. M., Spencer, C., McArdle, D. & Archer, F., 1 Jan 2017, In : Disasters. 41, 1, p. 171-193 23 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies

Wong, D. F., Spencer, C., Boyd, L., Burkle, Jr., F. M. & Archer, F., 1 Oct 2017, In : Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 32, 5, p. 501-514 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

An Historical Examination of the Development of Emergency Medical Services Education in the US through Key Reports (1966-2014)

Brooks, I., Sayre, M. R., Spencer, C. & Archer, F. L., Feb 2016, In : Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 31, 1, p. 90-97 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review