1989 …2023

Research activity per year

Personal profile


I obtained a First Class Honours Bachelor of Science [BSc (Hons)] degree in Biochemistry from the Department of Biochemistry (now known as Molecular Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur (1987). Following this, I was appointed as a research fellow at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, UM, where I completed the Master of Science (MSc) Degree (1990). 

I secured the prestigious Shell-Cambridge Commonwealth Trust Scholarship from the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust (CCT) and the Overseas Research Scholarship (ORS) Award from the United Kingdom (UK) government, which allowed me to pursue my Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree at the Department of Pathology (Immunology Division), University of Cambridge, UK.  Upon completion of my PhD, I was appointed as a post-doctoral researcher at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, UK. 

Upon returning to Malaysia in 1994, I join a newly established private biotechnology company as a senior scientist-cum-acting research manager.  A year later, I joined the International Medical College (IMC) as a lecturer.  The IMC was transformed to a full-fledged university, i.e. International Medical University (IMU) in 1999.  During my 22-year at the IMU, I was promoted to the rank of senior lecturer (1999), Associate Professor (2005) and Professor (2008). At the IMU, I held several academic administrative positions such as Associate Dean (Academic and International Affairs) in the School of Medicine, International Medical University (IMU) as well as Head, Pathology section.

My main research areas are in the area of immuno-regulation and immunotherapy in cancer as well as the use of natural compounds to enhance immune response to cancer.  I have successfully supervised several post-graduate students at the doctoral and masters’ levels as well as final year under-graduate research students.  I have published in several Tier 1 and 2 ISI and other peer-reviewed journals. 

I am a Fellow of the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust and the Cambridge Philosophical Society as well as Life-member in several societies.

I was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology, UK on 1 Jan 2023.

Expertise related to UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, UN member states agreed to 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. This person’s work contributes towards the following SDG(s):

  • SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-being
  • SDG 7 - Affordable and Clean Energy

Education/Academic qualification

Immunology, PhD, The CD2 Antigen as a Target for Immunosuppression, University of Cambridge

2 Oct 198915 Nov 1993

Award Date: 19 Mar 1994

Biochemistry, MSc, Comparative properties of D2 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from Rhizobium fredii and Rhizobium meliloti, Universiti Malaya (University of Malaya)

Jul 1987Jul 1989

Award Date: 11 Aug 1990

Biochemistry, BSc (Hons) Class 1, Partial Purification and characterisation of D2 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase from Rhizobium fredii., Universiti Malaya (University of Malaya)

Jul 1983May 1987

Award Date: 1 Aug 1987

External positions

Committee member of Sub-committee of the National Candidate COVID-19 Vaccine, Kementerian Kesihatan (Malaysia) (Ministry of Health)

24 Nov 2020 → …

Research area keywords

  • Immune System, Protein chemistry, structural biology, Natural killer cell receptors, T cell receptor, innate immunity, cryo-electron microscopy
  • Immunotherapy
  • immunomodulation
  • Bioactive Compounds
  • Cancer Immunology
  • Cancer Biology
  • Cancer epigenetics
  • Tocotrienol
  • Neurobiology
  • immune responses

Collaborations and top research areas from the last five years

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